Sound/Poetry Terms

Alliteration
is the repetition of first consonant sound
Anaphora
repetition of a word or words at the beginning of two or more successive verses, clauses, or sentences.
Assonance
is the repetition of vowel sounds. This repetition can occur anywhere in the words.
Cacophony
A harsh, discordant, unpleasant sounding choice and arrangement of sounds
Caesura
A pause introduced into the reading of a line by a punctuation
Consonance
is the repetition of consonant sounds. Although its similar to alliteration, consonance is not limited to the first letters of the words

End-stopped Line
A line that ends with a natural speech pause, usually marked by punctuation
Enjambment
the running on of the thought from one line, couplet, or stanza to the next without a syntactical break.

Euphony
A smooth, pleasant sounding choice and arrangement of sound
Feminine Rhyme
Is a rhyme that matches two or more syllables, usually found at the end of the verse

But since she prick’d thee out for women’s pleasure,
Mine be thy love and thy love’s use their treasure.

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Free/Blank verse
poetry that is free of regular meter, meaning free of a strict pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. .


Internal rhyme
rhyme that occurs within the line of poetry
Masculine Rhyme
is a rhymeon a single stressed syllableat the end of a line of poetry. This is much more common than feminine rhyme
Meter
poetic measure; arrangement of words with a regular beat (metrical foot), patterned, or rhythmic verses:
· monometer: one foot/beat per line
· dimeter: two feet/beats per line
· trimeter: three feet/beats per line
· tetrameter: four feet/beats per line
· pentameter: five feet/beats per line
· hexameter: six feet/beats per line
· heptameter: seven feet/beats per line
Mimetic
characterized by, exhibiting, or of the nature of imitation or mimicry: mimetic gestures.
Onomatopoeia
is the use of words that sound like what they mean
Rhyme scheme
the pattern of rhyme found in a poem

Run-on Line
A line which has no natural speech pause at its end, allowing the sense to flow into the succeeding line – similar to enjambent
Sonnet
A 14-line verse form usually having one of several conventional rhyme schemes.
Stanza
an arrangement of a certain number of lines, usually four or more, sometimes having a fixed length, meter, or rhyme scheme, forming a division of a poem
· two line stanza: couplet
· three line stanza: tercet
· four line stanza: quatrain
· five line stanza: quintet
· six line stanza: sestet or sextet
· seven line stanza: septet
· eight line stanza: octave
· fourteen line stanza: sonnet


Syntax

Simple Sentence

A sentence which contains one independent clause
Compound Sentence

A sentence which contains two independent clauses combined with a coordinating conjunction or semi-colon

Complex Sentence

A sentence which contains an independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses
Compound-Complex Sentence

A sentence which contains two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.

Declarative Sentence

A sentence which makes a statement
Interrogative Sentence

A sentence which asks a question
Rhetorical Sentence

A sentence in which a question which you do not actually expect the reader to answer
Exclamatory Sentence

A sentence which is simply a more forceful version of a declarative sentence, marked at the end with an exclamation mark.
Imperative Sentence

A sentence which gives a direct command to someone -- this type of sentence can end either with a period or with an exclamation mark
Loose Sentence

makes complete sense if brought to a close before the actual ending, e.g., We reached Edmonton / that morning / after a turbulent flight / and some exciting experiences
Periodic Sentence

makes sense only when the end of the sentence is reached, e.g., That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Edmonton.

Juxtaposition (syntax)

is a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to each other; for example; “Her old withered face had a youthful glow.”
Parallel Structure

(parallelism) refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentence or parts of sentences. It involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and equally phrased: e.g., “The sun rises; the sun sets.
Rhetorical Fragment

is a sentence fragment used deliberately for a persuasive purpose or to create a desired effect.

Asyndeton

Is the deliberate omission of conjunctions in a series of related clauses: example: I came, I saw, I conquered.
Polysyndeton

Is the deliberate use of many conjunctions for special emphasis – to highlight quantity or mass of detail. Example: During the summer the students had to write World Literature I, and World Literature II, and the Extended Essay, and all the other assignments.